All last week we shared basic recipes for your Mexican cooking, ranging from a Classic Guacamole to Homemade Flour Tortillas. If there is one vegetable that is a staple of Mexican cuisine if would have to be the Chile Pepper. It’s amazing the range of chile peppers you can use, and the best part is that once you start using them you’ll want to experiment with them in other recipes. So here are our 12 Essential Chile Peppers for Mexican Cooking.
We’ve tried to include as much information below to give you a good basic knowledge but don’t be afraid to experiment and substitute where ever you like. Most of the fresh chile peppers in this list can easily be found at most grocery stores. The dried varieties may be more difficult to locate depending on your locale but they store well so once you find them you can purchase a fairly significant amount at one time.
Chiles de Arbol
- heat index 15,000-30,000 Scoville units
- primarily used in powdered form to make sauces, but can also be used in soups and stews.
Chile de Arbol is also known as either bird’s beak chile or rat’s tail chile. They are a very distinctive bright red col0r when mature. These peppers can be found either dried fresh or powdered and are often used to decorate wreaths because they do not lose their red color after they are dried. You can substitute Cayenne pepper with Chile de Arbol in most recipes.
- heat index 2,500–10,000 Scoville Units
- most widely used chile pepper
Jalapeno is a medium-sized chili pepper, mature it is 2–3½ inches long and is commonly picked and consumed while still green, occasionally it is allowed to fully ripen and turn a beautiful crimson red. One of the most if not the most common chiles in the United States it is a staple of many tailgates.
- heat index 1,000-3,000 Scoville units
- Cascabel is perfect for adding a touch of heat to soups, salsas, stews and sauces
Cascabel chile, also known as the rattle chili, is a Mirasol variety and gets it’s name from the tendency of loose seeds to rattle inside a dried cascabel when shaken. The pigmentation of the fresh chilis blends from green to red and darkens when dried.
- heat index 100,000–350,000 Scoville units
- often the main ingredients in bottled hot sauces
Unripe habaneros are green, and they color as they mature. Common colors are orange and red, but white, brown, and pink are also seen. They are the hottest commonly used chile in Mexican cuisine so be careful when preparing them.
- heat index 1,000-2,000 Scoville units
- commonly used in mole sauces
The poblano is a mild chili pepper. Dried, it is called a chile ancho. The ripened red poblano is significantly hotter and more flavorful than the less ripe, green poblano. The flavor and heat can be unpredictable, occasionally they can have significant heat.
- heat index 250-4,000 Scoville units
- great with fruits, duck, seafood, lamb, mushrooms, garlic, fennel, honey or oregano.
Pasilla or “little raisin” refers to the dried chilaca pepper. Many times grocers miss label these for Ancho chiles. The Pasilla chile is normally 8 -10 inches long and narrower than Ancho.
- heat index 500-2,500 Scoville units
- commonly used in salsas, and can be roasted and stuffed to make rellenos
The mildest variety of chili pepper, also called California chili or Magdalena. Since Anaheim peppers originated from New Mexico, they are also sometimes also known as New Mexico peppers. Varieties of the pepper grown in New Mexico tend to be hotter than those grown in California.
- heat index 2,500-8,000 Scoville units
- rich slightly fruity flavor
Morita is a smoke-dried jalapeno, commonly referred to as a chipolte.
- heat index 2,500-5,000 Scoville units
- used in pastes, butters or rubs to flavor all kinds of meats, especially chicken
The guajillo chili is characterized by it’s thin, deep red flesh. It has a mild green tea flavor with berry overtones, only a small amount of heat. They are sometimes used to make the salsa for a sweet taste with a surprisingly hot finish.
- heat index 1,000-2,000 Scoville units
- Ancho along with Pasilla and Guajillo make up the “holy trinity” widely used in mole sauces
Ancho is the dried form of Poblano chiles and the most widely available dried chiles. Different peppers from the same plant have been reported to vary substantially in heat intensity.
- heat index 5,000-8,000 Scoville units
- great pureed, mashed or diced, and then made into a sauce
Very similar to the Guajillo, but smaller and hotter. It may be soaked in water to pull out the flavor. It is often used more for its fruity flavor, rather than its flesh.
- heat index 5,000-25,000 Scoville units
- perfect for salsas, sauces, relishes, garnishes
A smaller version of the jalapeno, it is similar in color and matures from a dark green to reddish orange even yellow in color. It is a very meaty flesh pepper and is not suitable for drying. They are typically eaten raw but are usually best when roasted. Serrano peppers are also commonly used in making pico de gallo.
Check out some of our favorite Mexican Recipes!
Do you have a favorite chile pepper? we would love to hear from you!